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Why in news?

Recently, Two United States Senators, a Republican and a Democrat, have introduced a bipartisan resolution in the upper chamber of Congress reiterating that the US recognises the McMahon Line as the international boundary between China and India in Arunachal Pradesh.

  • The resolution reaffirms India’s well-known and established position that Arunachal Pradesh, which China calls ‘South Tibet’, is an integral part of India.

About McMahon Line:

  • The McMahon Line serves as the de facto boundary between China and India in the Eastern Sector. It specifically represents the boundary between Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet, from Bhutan in the west to Myanmar in the east.
  • China has historically disputed the boundary and claims the state of Arunachal Pradesh as part of the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR).
  • The McMahon Line was drawn during the Simla Convention of 1914, officially described as the Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet.
  • While there were disputes regarding the McMahon line from the very beginning, after the communists took power in 1949, they pulled China out of all international agreements and the so-called “unequal treaties” that had been imposed on it during its “century of humiliation”, and demanded a renegotiation of all its borders.
  • During the 1962 Sino-Indian War, China was able to quickly overpower India and make deep inroads into Indian territory across the McMahon Line. However, its forces retreated to pre-war positions after the unilateral ceasefire was announced on November 21.

Important Boundary lines of India

  1. Line of Control (LOC)- the border between India and Pakistan which touches the State Jammu and Kashmir is known as the line of control. This border is under military control and it was originally known as the ceasefire line. The cease fire line was renamed as a line of control or LOC after the agreement of Shimla in 1972.
  2. Line of actual control (LAC)- the border between India and China is known as the line of actual control. It was originally a ceasefire line which after the war was turned into a line of actual control or LAC. LAC separates India and China.
  3. Durand line- Durand line separates India and Afghanistan and it was demarcated by Sir Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat. It was established in the year 1896 and it is known by the name of the British diplomat Sir Mortimer Durand. Durand line touch is the State Jammu and Kashmir in India. The international borderline between India and Afghanistan is mostly captured by Pakistan, but some parts of it still touch India and the borderline between Afghanistan and India is 106 km.
  4. Radcliffe line- Radcliffe line divides India and Pakistan and it is named after the architect, Sir Cyril Radcliffe. He was the chairman of the boundary commission and The Radcliffe line was established in August 1947. the Radcliffe of the line was drawn between India and Pakistan on the Western side and India and Bangladesh on the eastern side.
  5. McMahon line- It is the international boundary line that divides India and China. It was signified when India and Tibet signed a convention at the Shimla on 3rd July 1914. Sir Henry McMahon was the foreign secretary of the British government, who determined the McMahon Line.



Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/mcmahon-line-us-senate-8499398/